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How does a Milk Dispensing ATM Machine works?

How does a Milk Dispensing ATM Machine works? This is one of the critical question we normally get from our online and telephone conversation with willing buyers and those in research. Tassmatt Agencies Limited offers customers of milk ATM vending machine in Kenya various solutions due to the companies vast experience from its innovation of milk ATM in Kenya. On this article we have highlighted an outline on how milk dispenser ATM works;


Milk vending business in Kenya has taken a different course in recent years, with the introduction of vending machines known us milk ATM.

Milk market has shifted from processed and traditional vending to the new technological retailing techniques that preserves fresh milk.

Tassmatt assesses the market conditions leading to this change and highlights how traders can acquire and operate the milk vending machine, Milk ATM.

According to the Dairy Industry Act Cap 336 and Public Health Act Cap 242 of the Laws of Kenya, traders should follow and comply with certain rules before installing a milk vending machine in Kenya.

The measures stipulate that a trader should have a well-designed and constructed premise with proper walls, drainage, lighting and ventilation.

The mode of transport should be hygienically made using aluminum or stainless steel and approved, milk transport vehicles.

The trader should also observe personnel hygiene and health –having a medical certificate is mandatory.

The vending premises should have access to clean and portable water.

The trader should maintain quality records for cleaning and disinfection of the premises and equipment for vending.

The environmental should be hygienically clean.

After ensuring that the above measures have been adhered to, the trader can apply for licensing from the Kenya Dairy Board – at this stage, an inspection of the premises will be done to evaluate compliance before a license is issued.

There will be routine inspection by the board after licensing to ensure hygienic requirements are continuously met.

The trader should also have other licenses such as trade licenses by the County Governments.


The ATM Machine works like an Automated Teller Machine allowing consumers to buy milk from a mechanized nozzle. In this activity, they bring their own canister and you key in the amount they need then they pay. It’s really that simple. This reduces packaging expenses for both you and your customers.

Methods Used in Milk Pasteurization In Kenya

Milk pasteurization is the process of heating milk (or milk product) to a predetermined temperature for a specified period without re-contamination during the entire process. The predetermined temperature usually depends on the heat resistance of spoilage microorganisms that the pasteurization program is targeting to destroy.

Some of the best sellers of this milk pasteurizers in Kenya, include Tassmatt Agencies Limited, with offices in Nairobi Contacts 0726-410068. Tassmatt also sells other inline equipments like milk atms, milk coolers, water purification systems, cooking oil atms and much more.

Pasteurization is the process by which food products (such as juice and dairy products) are mildly heated to kill off harmful bacteria, salmonella, and other disease-causing pathogens. These products are thus made safe for consumption. Unpasteurized food, such as raw milk, may also be safe for consumption, but typically for a shorter period of time than products that have undergone pasteurization.

Methods Used in Milk Pasteurization

High-Temperature Short Time (HTST) Pasteurization

  • This type of pasteurization is also known as flash pasteurization.
  • Flash pasteurization involves heating milk to 71.7°C for 15 seconds to kill Coxiella burnetii, which is the most heat-resistant pathogen in raw milk.
  • Since it is technically impossible to bring the milk to that exact temperature, it is always safe to work with a range of temperatures. To be safe, you can heat the milk to between 72°C to 74°C for 15 to 20 seconds.
  • This will ensure that the milk is heated uniformly to the required temperature.
  • This method is most suitable in continuous pasteurization systems.
  • Flash pasteurized milk will keep for between 16 and 21 days. For commercial reasons, some manufacturers intentionally reduce the number of days to push the products out of the shelves.

Low-Temperature Long Time (LTLT) pasteurization

  • Here, the temperatures used for pasteurization are reduced to 63°C and held for 30 minutes.
  • The prolonged holding period alters the structure of the milk proteins making them better suited for making yogurt.
  • This method is best for batch pasteurization where the milk is held in a jacketed vat for effective pasteurization.
  • There are many designs of batch pasteurizers in the market that are suitable for both domestic and commercial use.

Ultra-High Temperature (UHT) Pasteurization

  • This is a completely closed pasteurization method. The product is never exposed even for a fraction of a second during the entire process.
  • It involves heating milk or cream to between 135°C to 150°C for one to two seconds, then chilling it immediately and aseptically packaging it in a hermetic (air-tight) container for storage.
  • Despite the risk of Millard browning, UHT pasteurization remains the most popular milk preservation method for safe and stable milk.

Steps of Pasteurization

1. Milk chilling

  • Chilling is not a pasteurization process but it is a necessary step when dealing with large volumes of milk.
  • Milk leaves the cow’s udder at temperatures above the ambient, which encourages rapid bacterial multiplication that speeds up spoilage.
  • However, reducing the temperatures to between 2° C to 5° C arrests bacterial growth and metabolism.
  • This provides a head start at keeping the quality before proper pasteurization commences.

2. Pre-heating (regeneration) and Standardization Stage

  • After bulking, the chilled milk is heated to about 40°C to facilitate easy separation of butterfat during standardization.
  • The system uses regenerative heating, i.e., it uses the heat of the already pasteurized milk to heat up the incoming chilled milk. The chilled milk, in a counter-current flow, cools down the pasteurized milk.
  • The purpose of standardization is to obtain a product with uniform content of butter-fat.

3. Clarification stage

  • Clarification is essential for removing all foreign matter from the product.
  • Large solid particles are removed by straining the milk through tubular metallic filters.
  • A centrifugal clarifier (not the one used for standardization) is used to remove all soil and sediments from milk.
  • The filters, usually fitted in parallel twins permits continuous processing as one can be cleaned while the other is running.
  • Clean the filters regularly (between 2 to 10 operational hours depending on the level of dirt) to avoid the growth of bacteria.

4. Standardization stage

  • It is important to standardize milk fat to ensure that you end up with a product of consistent quality in the market. Different consumers prefer different products.
  • There are customers who will consume skim milk only while there are those who will take low-fat milk. There are those who will take standardized milk while there are those who prefer high-fat milk.
  • Standardization is necessary to ensure that all the customers are catered for. Again, it is during the process of standardization that you get to separate the butterfat that is used for making cream and other fat-based products such as butter and ghee.

5. Homogenization stage

  • Homogenization is a physical process of breaking down the milk fat globules into tiny droplets to discourage cream separation.
  • Tiny droplets of fat do not rise in a milk column since reducing their sizes also increases their density in the milk.
  • A milk homogenizer working at between 100 to 170 bars splits all the fat globules into very tiny droplets that increase the level of integration of the fat in the milk.
  • As a result, the milk fat remains uniformly distributed in the milk.

6. Heating section

  • Utilizes heat from steam to raise the temperatures of the milk from about 60°C to the required 72°C that is effective to kill the Clostridium botulinum spores.
  • The steam exchanges heat with the milk across the PHE plates in a counter-current motion.
  • In the end, if this section, there is a temperature sensor, which controls the flow diversion valve.
  • Any milk that does not attain the required temperature is diverted back to the heating section until it attains the required temperatures.

7. Holding section

  • After heating, milk flows into the holding tubes whose lengths have been calibrated with the milk flow rate to ensure that milk takes at least 16 seconds in the tubes. All the milk must maintain the required pasteurization temperatures at the end of the tubes.
  • In case of a breach, a sensor will trigger the flow diversion valve to take the milk back to the heating section to bring the milk to the required temperature.
  • Once the milk has attained the required temperatures at the end of the holding tubes, milk flows back to the regeneration section to heat the incoming chilled milk while in itself being cooled down to about 30°C.

8. Cooling/chilling section

  • After regenerative cooling of pasteurized milk, it moves to the cooling section of the PHE where chilled water/PHE coolant lowers the temperature of pasteurized milk to 4°C.
  • The chilled milk is then pumped to the packaging machines for aseptic packaging and subsequent storage in the cold room.

Significance of Pasteurization

Proper pasteurization is necessary for the following reasons:

  • The chief objective of milk pasteurization is to destroy pathogenic bacteria that could have a public health concern. By destroying these microorganisms, the product becomes safe for public consumption.
  • Secondly, pasteurization eliminates destructive bacteria and enzymes that could cause spoilage of the product. This leads to the prolonged shelf life of the milk.
  • There is a need to ensure that the product can keep for longer periods without expensive storage equipment. Pasteurization will eliminate spoilage bacteria and enzymes and extend the shelf life of the product.

What Are the Benefits of Pasteurization?

Pasteurizing a liquid provides many benefits. These include:

  • Eliminating harmful bacteria like Listeria, Salmonella, Listeria, Staphylococcus aureus, Yersinia, Campylobacter, and Escherichia coli O157:H7.
  • Preventing diseases like scarlet fever, tuberculosis, brucellosis, and diphtheria.
  • Providing a longer shelf life when compared to unpasteurized milk.
  • Elimination of volatile aroma compounds from certain foods. Note that this is not necessarily a benefit: many of these aromas can be pleasing to consumers.
  • Sanitizing liquids in a shorter time than would be possible with other methods, leading to more effective overall disease control.

References with credit

  4. B9781855736764500184/first-page-pdf
milk coolers in kenya
Milk Cooler Tanks In Kenya, A Sure Bet To Your Milk Cleanliness And Quality

Farmers and Producers know, good milk quality depends on the correct cooling and system cleanliness. 0726410068

Milk cooling has come a long way in the past few decades in Kenya. From the early days of spring water passing through a stack of 10-gallon milk cans, getting milk cold as quickly as possible once it leaves the cow has always been a priority at any dairy farm.

This is for two primary reasons: to inhibit bacteria growth, thereby extending shelf life; and to ensure the milk’s taste, enhancing salability.

Although optimal bacterial growth conditions vary for different organisms, milk is an ideal medium for the growth of many types of bacteria. Milk temperature plays an important role in this growth. Many bacteria types prefer to grow at body temperature of 30ºC to 37ºC, and other psychrotrophic bacteria thrive at cooler temperatures of 4ºC to 10ºC.

To ensure the best milk quality, the goal is to keep these bacteria from making contact with the milk by means of quality herd health procedures, properly tuning milking equipment, ensuring the cleanliness of all milk product surface equipment and employing hygienic operator procedures. The next key defense is cooling the milk from the cow as quickly as possible to a holding temperature of 2ºC to 3ºC, as this will significantly reduce the growth rate of any bacteria present.

Milk cooler tanks have in the recent times became the option of choice across Kenya. These were prominently “open-top models” in capacities usually ranging from 250 to 5000 litres. The open top is preferred for two reasons: They are easier to dump milk into if you were to bring the milk to it in pails, and they are easier to wash with a manual brush. These coolers by tassmatt agencies limited are effective for cooling and particularly well matched for the milk delivery rates of milking systems.

As dairies grew in the late 1960s and 1970s, enclosed horizontal milk coolers became the normal offering. Sizes expanded, automatic wash was offered, and multiple evaporator plates allowed more cooling capacity to handle the higher milk flow rates that were becoming more commonplace. These tanks were able to be bulkheaded into existing milk rooms, which made them an attractive and cost-effective solution.

As dairies grew in the 1970s and 1980s, many started to apply “plate heat exchangers,” which allowed the cold well water used to water the cows to pass through the heat exchanger as a cooling medium to precool the milk from the cows before it entered the milk cooler. This remains a highly energy-efficient method to precool milk, improve overall long-term milk quality and reduce energy costs.

As years have passed, the enclosed horizontal milk cooler offerings have increased to sizes up through 30,000 litres. Many improvements in evaporator, refrigeration unit, wash system and control designs have improved efficiencies and provided many beneficial features.

Many dairies have grown and expanded to larger tank sizes and, in many instances, they use multiple tanks to allow multiple truckloads to be picked up at one time.

In-line cooling, often referred to as “instant cooling,” was developed in the late 1980s and applied to resolve these high milk flow rate cooling requirements. By using large-horsepower condensing units to cool a closed-circuit propylene-glycol solution, the capacity to cool large-volume milk flow became available. The chilled glycol solution was pumped through multiple sections of a high-flow plate heat exchanger.

As the milk was transferred from the milking parlour, it was first precooled with well water, then instant cooled immediately to the desired holding temperature as it passed through the chilled glycol heat transfer section. The instant cooling evolution was a great advancement toward the goal of cooling the milk to holding temperature as quickly as possible. Additionally, reaching cold milk holding temperature without constant milk cooler agitation provides milk quality advantages of reduced milk cell damage and elevated fatty-acids caused by extensive agitation and milk mishandling at warmer temperatures.

It should also be mentioned that instant cooling benefits for overall milk quality are not only associated with high-milk flow barns. Additionally, dairies appreciated having the milk instantly cooled to holding temperature before it entered the buffer tank and while the primary tank was being emptied and washed.

The ability to instant cool the milk also offered options such as pumping directly into transport trucks. This was seen as a significant advantage to large dairies, as often the capital cost of the truck was incurred by the hauler or milk receiver. Typically, the ongoing wash and maintenance costs were also passed on.

However, there were drawbacks with this type of system as well. First, the capacity of the cooling had to be sized to handle the peak milk flows rather than the average, as the milk was only passed through the plate heat exchanger once for a few seconds. Redundancy in condensing units was a must as well, for no opportunity to run at partial capacity was allowed. Additionally, in-line cooling, by its indirect nature (refrigerant to glycol to milk), could be approximately 20% less energy-efficient than traditional direct-expansion refrigeration in a milk cooler.

Scheduling trucks and drivers had their own headaches as well. The constant shuffling of trailers, evolving transportation laws and pushback from milk processors regarding load delivery times were often a hassle. This concern has only grown.

This trade-off has caused many to evaluate and decide to come back to on-farm storage with instant cooling. New advances in designs of vertical milk storage (silos) has included more capacity for direct-expansion cooling in these vessels, which can reduce the back-up redundancy that may be needed in the in-line cooling processes.

In some instances, peak milk flow loads can be handled by this extra cooling capacity now available on the newer silos. The capacity to hold a couple days of milk production provides significant insurance for truck failures, plant downtime, weather concerns, etc. Also, many expanding dairies recognize that a vertical silo installed on an exterior foundation and concrete slab can be much more cost-effective than incurring extensive construction costs to increase their milkhouse size and floor space to add more or larger horizontal milk coolers.

One of the most significant changes we see entering the marketplace today is in new control offerings for on-farm cooling and storage. Controls that can provide remote access to temperature and milk volume are now available. These have the option to send pickup alerts to the haulers, notifying them that the vessel is loaded to the proper level and at desired temperature.

They also provide the regulatory records for extended time and temperature recordings, eliminating the need for paper-and-ink recorders. Remote access is now available, allowing electronic milk volume level sensing; milk, wash and chiller glycol temperatures; refrigeration unit operating pressures and conditions; critical alarms; and historical data to be viewed in real time from any smartphone, tablet or computer with an internet connection.

It is safe to say that on-farm milk cooling, milk atm vending machine and milk pasteurizers has evolved over the past years, but as we look into the “future,” we can promise that it’s not over yet. end mark


CREDIT: Progessive Dairy

Mike Kelley is the Canadian Regional Sales Manager with Paul Mueller Company.